Global Cultures’ Influence on Democracy at Work


Global Cultures’ Influence on Democracy at Work

Agora #92

This article explores how various regions implement workplace democracy, providing specific examples to illuminate the universal appeal and effectiveness of these practices.

Workplace democracy go beyond geographical boundaries, embodying principles that resonate with workers globally. By incorporating democratic practices, companies and institutions worldwide are not only enhancing worker satisfaction and productivity but are also fostering environments of mutual respect and shared success. This article explores how various regions implement workplace democracy, providing specific examples to illuminate the universal appeal and effectiveness of these practices.

The European Model: Collaborative and Codetermined

In Europe, Germany stands out with its well-established system of “Mitbestimmung,” or co-determination, where workers participate in management decisions through their representatives on company boards. This system not only empowers workers but also fosters a deeper sense of loyalty and responsibility towards the company. Such practices are supported by strong unions and labour laws that promote a balance of power, ensuring that employees at all levels have a voice in shaping the policies that affect their work lives. Such an example is Volkswagen’s co-determination model, where employees participate in decision-making at the highest levels, ensuring worker interests are considered alongside those of shareholders .

Similarly, Scandinavian countries like Sweden and Denmark exemplify a high degree of workplace democracy, often seen in their flat organizational structures and strong emphasis on employee autonomy. These countries score high on job satisfaction surveys, which many attribute to their democratic work practices, including extensive worker consultation and the promotion of work-life balance.  Sweden’s Spotify uses a flat organizational structure that minimizes hierarchy and maximizes inclusivity, promoting transparency and innovation.

Italy’s cooperative movement, particularly in the Emilia-Romagna region, showcases another model of workplace democracy. Cooperatives like the Coop Italia grocery chain is owned and managed by their members, aligning business practices with the needs and interests of the community .

The North American Approach: Emerging Trends and Challenges

Across the Atlantic, the United States presents a contrasting scenario where traditional union power has waned, but there is a growing trend towards democratizing workplaces through worker cooperatives and collective bargaining agreements. Innovative labour arrangements, such as employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs), offer a form of economic democracy by allowing workers to acquire a stake in their company’s success, thereby aligning the interests of employees and employers towards common goals.

In the United States, New Belgium Brewing provides a remarkable example of employee ownership, enhancing workers’ commitment to the company’s goals [4].

However, workplace democracy in the U.S. faces significant challenges due to varied state laws and the often-contentious relationship between unions and management. Despite these hurdles, there are notable examples of successful union-driven initiatives that enhance workplace democracy, such as the United Auto Workers’ role in negotiating for better terms in employment contracts.

Canada’s Desjardins Group, a cooperative financial institution, empowers its member-owners to have a say in the direction of the company, demonstrating the effectiveness of cooperative models in the financial sector [5].

Asia and Workplace Democracy: Varied Experiences

Asia offers a diverse picture of workplace democracy. In Japan, the system of “Kaizen,” which focuses on continuous improvement through worker feedback and participation, highlights a form of democratic engagement at an operational level. Japan’s Toyota employs the “Kaizen” method, engaging all employees in continual improvement processes [6]. South Korea’s technology firm Naver supports a participatory culture where employees are actively involved in decision-making processes, reflecting a modern approach to workplace democracy in a high-tech industry [7]. Conversely, in places like China, where union activities are tightly controlled by the state, workplace democracy takes on a different form, focusing more on productivity and less on genuine power sharing.

In India, democratic practices are often influenced by the strong presence of unions in the formal sector, though many workers remain in informal employment where such luxuries are scarce. However, initiatives to bring informal workers into the fold through unionization efforts show promise for expanding workplace democracy. In India, the IT services giant Infosys has set benchmarks in employee participation by offering stock options to its employees, aligning the workers’ interests with the organizational goals [8].

South American Innovations

In Brazil, the worker health cooperative Unimed stands as the largest cooperative health system in the world, owned and operated by its doctor members [9].

Argentina’s recovered factories movement, where employees take over and manage failing factories, exemplifies a more radical approach to workplace democracy. Companies like the Zanon ceramic factory is now managed as cooperatives [10].

African Perspectives

In South Africa, the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) initiative encourages businesses to engage in fair practices and include diverse voices in decision-making. Companies like Telkom SA have incorporated these principles to create more inclusive work environments [11].

Best Practices for Fostering Democracy at Work

The global examples highlight several best practices:

Institutional Support: Governments and organizations can facilitate workplace democracy through supportive legislation and policies.

Education and Training: Continual education on democratic practices benefits both employees and management.

Technology and Innovation: Leveraging technology aids in maintaining transparent and inclusive communication channels.

Cultural Adaptation: Tailoring democratic practices to fit cultural and regional specifics is crucial for their success and sustainability.

Takeaways for the EU institutions

To practically implement global democratic practices, European public sector and EU institutions could consider specific adaptations from successful models abroad that enhance employee involvement and decision-making. For instance, inspired by the German co-determination model, EU institutions could introduce similar mechanisms where employee representatives are included on decision-making boards. This could be applied particularly in the management of EU agencies, promoting transparency, and ensuring that employee insights are considered in policy and administrative decisions.

Moreover, adapting the “Kaizen” method from Japan, EU public sector organizations could establish continuous improvement programs that empower all employees to suggest and implement changes in their workplace. This approach would not only improve processes but also foster a culture of ownership and accountability, vital for public sector efficacy.

Lastly, by looking at the flat hierarchy model of Sweden’s Spotify, EU institutions could reevaluate their organizational structures to reduce bureaucratic layers, thereby speeding up decision-making and increasing adaptability. Implementing such a model could lead to more agile institutions that are better equipped to meet the dynamic needs of European citizens, enhancing service delivery and public satisfaction.


or co-determination, is a distinctive feature of the corporate governance model in Germany, allowing workers to participate in the management of the companies they work for. This system is based on the idea that workers should have a voice in the running of the companies and not just be passive elements of production.

Key Features of Mitbestimmung:

  1. Board Representation: Under the German co-determination system, employees have the right to elect representatives to the company’s supervisory board. For larger companies (typically those with more than 2,000 employees), half of the supervisory board members are elected by the shareholders and half by the employees. This ensures that employees have a substantial say in major decisions and policies.
  2. Work Councils: At a more localized level, workers can form and elect a works council, which represents employees at the workplace. The council has rights to information, consultation, and co-decision in matters affecting workers’ rights and working conditions.
  3. Legal Framework: The system is supported by a series of laws, notably the Works Constitution Act and the Co-determination Act, which lay down the rules and procedures for worker participation in management decisions.

Objectives and Benefits:

  • Improved Communication: Mitbestimmung fosters a culture of communication and cooperation between management and workers.
  • Employee Satisfaction: By involving employees in decision-making, companies can boost employee morale and loyalty.
  • Corporate Responsibility: The system encourages more responsible corporate decisions, as the interests of workers are considered alongside those of shareholders.
  • Economic Stability: Some studies suggest that co-determination can lead to more stable and less volatile corporate performance.

In practice, Mitbestimmung has been praised for promoting a more collaborative and less adversarial relationship between labour and management, which can lead to innovative solutions and more sustainable business practices. However, it also faces criticism, particularly from those who argue that it can slow down decision-making processes or interfere with management’s ability to manage effectively. Despite these debates, it remains a central pillar of the German economic model.


is known for its innovative approach to organizational structure, which has been evolving since the company’s inception. Traditionally, Spotify has embraced a model known as “Spotify model” of management, which is characterized by its emphasis on autonomy, agility, and collaboration.

Key Features of Spotify’s Organizational Structure:

  1. Squads, Tribes, Chapters, and Guilds:
    • Squads: These are small, autonomous teams that operate like startups. Each squad is responsible for a specific area of the product and is cross-functional, containing all the skills needed to complete their tasks.
    • Tribes: A tribe is a collection of squads that work in related areas, overseen by a tribe leader whose main job is to ensure that each squad is functioning smoothly and in alignment with the company’s goals.
    • Chapters: These are groups of people with similar skills or roles within the same tribe. They are led by a chapter lead, often with the objective of sharing knowledge and best practices.
    • Guilds: These are more informal, voluntary groups that can span across the entire company and connect people with similar interests or technical specialties.
  2. Emphasis on Autonomy: Each squad at Spotify is given a high degree of autonomy. The company believes that autonomous teams can respond more quickly and with more innovation than those in a traditional hierarchical system. This autonomy allows squads to make decisions and experiment with ideas without waiting for higher-level approval.
  3. Leadership and Alignment: While autonomy is a cornerstone of the Spotify model, leadership and strategic alignment are also crucial. Leaders are expected to set clear visions and contexts but without micromanaging how teams achieve their goals.
  4. Agile Practices: Spotify has embedded agile methodologies into its workflow, utilizing aspects of Scrum, Kanban, and Lean methodologies. This agile approach helps teams stay flexible and responsive to change.

Evolution and Adjustments:

Spotify’s organizational structure has evolved as the company has grown. The original setup with the described roles and structures aimed to maintain a balance between independence and accountability but has faced challenges such as scaling issues and inter-team coordination as the company expanded globally. In response, Spotify continuously adapts its structure, trying to find the best ways to sustain innovation and efficiency at scale.

The company’s commitment to maintaining a flat and flexible organizational structure, despite its size, highlights its dedication to innovation and employee empowerment. This structure supports a dynamic work environment where ideas can flow freely, and employees are encouraged to take initiative and ownership of their work.

The system of Kaizen

is a fundamental concept in Japanese management philosophy, emphasizing continuous improvement in all aspects of an organization. Derived from the Japanese words kai (change) and zen (for the better), Kaizen is both a personal and a corporate strategy that involves every employee from upper management to assembly line workers.

Key Features of Kaizen:

  1. Incremental Improvement: Unlike radical changes or innovations, Kaizen focuses on small, ongoing positive changes that involve all employees. This approach reduces resistance and is more cost-effective than large-scale changes.
  2. Employee Involvement: Central to Kaizen is the idea that the people doing the work are best positioned to identify the room for improvement. Hence, it encourages open communication and suggestions from all employees, fostering a sense of teamwork and ownership.
  3. Process Orientation: Instead of focusing solely on results, Kaizen aims to improve the processes that lead to results. This might include streamlining operations, reducing waste, improving workflow, or enhancing efficiency.
  4. Standardization: Improvements through Kaizen lead to changes in processes, and once a better method is identified, it becomes the new standard. This standard is continually improved upon, creating a cycle of ongoing optimization.
  5. Quality Improvement: By continuously implementing small improvements, the quality of products and services improves over time, which can lead to higher customer satisfaction.

Objectives and Benefits:

  • Increased Efficiency: By continually identifying and eliminating wasteful practices, Kaizen helps in reducing costs and improving efficiency.
  • Enhanced Competitiveness: Continuous improvement helps organizations adapt quickly to changes and challenges in the business environment, maintaining their competitive edge.
  • Employee Morale and Engagement: Engaging employees in the process of decision-making and improvements makes them feel valued and part of the organization’s success.
  • Better Quality: Incremental improvements in processes typically lead to enhancements in product and service quality.

Implementation in the Workplace:

Implementing Kaizen in a workplace typically involves setting up systems to solicit and implement improvement suggestions from employees. This can include regular meetings, suggestion boxes, and leadership encouragement. Training and educating employees about the philosophy and tools of Kaizen are also crucial to its successful implementation.

In practice, many global companies outside of Japan, across various industries, have adopted the Kaizen methodology due to its universal appeal and proven effectiveness. This strategy is not just limited to manufacturing but can also be applied in service sectors, healthcare, and education, among others.

Fábricas recuperadas

Argentina’s recovered factories movement, known locally as “fábricas recuperadas,” refers to a phenomenon where employees take over the management and operation of factories that were abandoned or were at risk of closure due to financial mismanagement or economic crisis. This movement gained significant momentum during Argentina’s economic collapse in 2001 and 2002.

Key Aspects of the Movement:

  1. Origins and Causes: The recovered factories movement emerged in response to the severe economic crisis that hit Argentina in the early 2000s, leading to widespread unemployment and social unrest. Many businesses faced bankruptcy, and owners often abandoned their factories, leaving workers without jobs and unpaid wages.
  2. Worker Self-Management: In many cases, the workers, rather than accepting unemployment, organized themselves to take over and restart production without the involvement of the original owners or new investors. These worker-controlled factories operate under a cooperative model, where decisions are made democratically, and profits are distributed among the worker-members.
  3. Legal Framework: The legal status of these takeovers has been complex and contentious. Initially, workers occupied the factories without formal legal approval. Over time, some cooperatives have been able to negotiate temporary or permanent expropriation laws through local governments, allowing them to legally manage the factories.
  4. Support and Advocacy: The movement has received support from various social movements, human rights organizations, and left-wing political groups. The National Movement of Recovered Companies (Movimiento Nacional de Empresas Recuperadas) is one prominent organization that advocates for the rights of these worker cooperatives.
  5. Impact and Success: The movement has had a notable impact on the Argentine economy and society. Many of these cooperatives have not only saved jobs but have also proven to be viable economic alternatives to traditional capitalist enterprises. They often focus on community and worker well-being over maximum profit generation.
  6. Cultural Influence: The movement has also influenced cultural production, inspiring documentaries, books, and academic studies that explore themes of worker rights, economic alternatives, and social justice.


Some of the most well-known examples of recovered factories include:

  • Zanon Ceramics: Now known as FaSinPat (Factory Without a Boss), this ceramic tile manufacturer in Neuquén became one of the movement’s symbols after workers took it over in 2001.
  • Hotel Bauen: Located in Buenos Aires, this hotel was occupied and run by its workers after its closure in the wake of the financial crisis.

The recovered factories movement in Argentina represents a significant example of worker resilience and ingenuity in the face of economic adversity. It raises important questions about workers’ rights, the role of the state in supporting or regulating such initiatives, and the viability of cooperative models in various economic sectors.

Isidoros TSOUROS

About The Author

Isidoros assumed the role of Research Assistant at EUAA in 2019. With over 25 years of experience as a legal professional, he has had a distinguished career, being elected as the President of a Greek Law Bar Association on two occasions. In 2022, he was elected to the USB Executive Committee as a representative from the Agencies Section. This article reflects his trade-union perspective and is written in that capacity.